Share Shares Yersinia pestis. Who would think that such a microscopic organism in the gut of an infected flea could create an upheaval in human society?
Medieval demography Figures for the death toll vary widely by area and from source to source, and estimates are frequently revised as historical research brings new discoveries to light.
Most scholars estimate that the Black Death killed between 75 and million people in the 14th century, at a time when the entire world population was still less than million.
Europe[ edit ] Europe suffered an especially significant death toll from the plague. Modern estimates range between roughly one-third and one-half of the total European population in the five-year period of toduring which the most severely affected areas may have lost up to 80 percent of the population.
Larger cities were the worst off, as population densities and close living quarters made disease transmission easier. Cities were also strikingly filthy, infested with licefleasand ratsand subject to diseases caused by malnutrition and poor hygiene.
Between 60 and 70 percent of Hamburg 's and Bremen 's populations died. In some regions, two-thirds of the population was annihilated.
In the town of Givryin the Bourgogne region of France, the local friar, who used to note 28 to 29 funerals a year, recorded deaths inhalf of them in September.
About half of Perpignan 's population died over the course of several months only two of the eight physicians survived the plague. Over 60 percent of Norway's population died between and Other places, including parts of Hungarythe Brabant region, Hainautand Limbourg in modern Belgiumas well as Santiago de Compostelawere unaffected for unknown reasons.
Some historians  have assumed that the presence of resistant blood groups in the local population helped them resist infection, although these regions were touched by the second plague outbreak in —63 the "little mortality" and later during the numerous resurgences of the plague in —69, —75, etc.
Other areas which escaped the plague were isolated in mountainous regions e. Asia[ edit ] Estimates of the demographic effect of the plague in Asia are based on population figures during this time and estimates of the disease's toll on population centers.
The most severe outbreak of plague in the Chinese province of Hubei in claimed up to 80 percent of the population. Mortality was particularly high in rural areas, including significant areas of Gaza and Syria. Many rural people fled, leaving their fields and crops, and entire rural provinces are recorded as being totally depopulated.
Surviving records in some cities reveal a devastating number of deaths. The outbreak in Gaza left an estimated 10, people dead, while Aleppo recorded a death rate of per day during the same year.
In Damascusat the disease's peak in September and Octobera thousand deaths were recorded every day, with overall mortality estimated at between 25 and 38 percent. Syria lost a total ofpeople by the time the epidemic subsided in March In contrast to some higher mortality estimates in Asia and Europe, scholars such as John Fields of Trinity College in Dublin believe the mortality rate in the Middle East was less than one-third of the total population, with higher rates in selected areas.
Social, environmental, and economic effects[ edit ] Because 14th-century healers were at a loss to explain the cause of the Black Death, many Europeans ascribed supernatural forces, earthquakes and malicious conspiracies, among other things, as possible reasons for the plague's emergence.
Giovanni Boccaccioan Italian writer and poet of the era, questioned whether it was sent by God for their correction, or that it came through the influence of the heavenly bodies. The spreading of this rumor led to complete destruction of entire Jewish towns, and was simply caused by suspicion on part of the Christians, who noticed that the Jews had lost fewer lives to the plague due to their hygienic practices.
In August of the same year, the Jewish communities of Mainz and Cologne were exterminated. At best, they proved mostly unenforceable. At worst, they contributed to a continent-wide downward spiral. The hardest hit lands, like England, were unable to buy grain abroad from France because of the prohibition and from most of the rest of the grain producers because of crop failures from shortage of labour.
Any grain that could be shipped was eventually taken by pirates or looters to be sold on the black market. Meanwhile, many of the largest countries, most notably England and Scotland, had been at war, using up much of their treasury and exacerbating inflation.
Inon the eve of the first wave of the Black Death, England and France went to war in what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. Malnutrition, poverty, disease and hunger, coupled with war, growing inflation and other economic concerns made Europe in the midth century ripe for tragedy.The Black Death had several consequences including cultural, religious and economic influences.
These changes were both positive and negative and contributed to conditions favorable to the decline of feudalism, the end of the Middle Ages and the emergence of the Renaissance. Jan 28, · Despite the horrors of bubonic plague, Europe showed remarkable resilience in its survival.
The Black Death, tragic though it was, may have made the world a brighter place. The following improvements to society would no doubt have inevitably evolved .
Social and Economic Effects of the Black Death Some social changes caused by the Black Death were positive. Before the plague, peasant serfs were confined to their lord’s estate and received little or no payment for their work.
Because the Black Death killed so many people, there was much more demand for the workers and peasants who survived. They First of all, we should note that it is a little cold-blooded to talk about positive effects of this horrible human tragedy.
The consequences of the Black Death are the short-term and long-term effects of the Black Death on human populations across the world. They include a series of various biological, social, economic, political and religious upheavals which had profound effects on the course of world history, especially European history.
Jun 19, · The arrival of the Black Death in Europe around must have seemed like another burden to be borne. Indeed, the pestilence wiped out a vast proportion of Europe's population but in the long term the survivors and their descendants did see positive effects of the Black ashio-midori.coms: