The Rise and Fall of the Athenian Empire Part 2 by Socrates on April 7, You might remember two weeks ago we had something of a chat about a rather interesting bit of history. How is it that an alliance of cities with the unobjectionable goal of protecting their homeland from foreign invaders eventually turned into one of the first empires of the ancient world? Anybody with a basic understanding of history, or human nature, will recognize the cycle.
Battle of Marathon After hearing a plea for help from Athens who were facing the Persians at Marathon in BC, Sparta decided to honor its laws and wait until the moon was full to send an army.
As a result, Sparta's army arrived at Marathon after the battle had been won by the Athenians. Battle of Thermopylae[ edit ] Main article: Battle of Thermopylae In the second campaign, conducted ten years later by XerxesSparta faced the same dilemma.
The Persians inconveniently chose to attack during the Olympic truce which the Spartans felt they must honor.
|The Fall of the Spartan Empire Essay Example | Graduateway||In so doing Sparta had seized the hegemony of the Greek world. Leuctra must have seemed to many observers of the contemporary scene like rain from a clear blue sky.|
Other Greek states which lacked such scruples were making a major effort to assemble a fleet - how could Sparta not contribute on land when others were doing so much on sea?
However, there are indications that Sparta's religious scruples were merely a cover. From this interpretation, Sparta believed that the defense of Thermopylae was hopeless and wished to make a stand at the Isthmus, but they had to go through the motions or Athens might ally itself with Persia. The The fall of the spartan empire of Athens's fleet would simply be too great a loss to the Greek resistance to be risked.
The decisive victory of Salamis did not change Sparta's essential dilemma. Ideally, they would wish to fight at the Isthmus where they would avoid the risk of their infantry being caught in the open by the Persian cavalry.
Battle of Plataea[ edit ] Main article: In the resulting Battle of Plataea the Greeks under the generalship of the Spartan Pausanias overthrew the lightly armed Persian infantry, killing Mardonius.
Even though this war was won by a pan-Greek army, credit was given to Sparta, who besides being the protagonist at Thermopylae and Plataea, had been the de facto leader of the entire Greek expedition.
When this victory led to a revolt of the Ionian Greeks it was Sparta that rejected their admission to the Hellenic alliance. Sparta proposed that they should abandon their homes in Anatolia and settle in the cities that had supported the Persians.
However, his arrogant behavior forced his recall. Pausanias had so alienated the Ionians that they refused to accept the successor, Dorcisthat Sparta sent to replace him. Instead those newly liberated from Persia turned to Athens. As a result of the Peloponnesian WarSparta, a traditionally continental culture, became a naval power.
At the peak of its power Sparta subdued many of the key Greek states and even managed to overpower the elite Athenian navy. By the end of the 5th century BC, it stood out as a state which had defeated the Athenian Empire and had invaded the Persian provinces in Anatolia, a period which marks the Spartan Hegemony.
Historical sources suggest that the death toll may have been as high as 20, although modern scholars suggest that this figure is likely an exaggeration. The earthquake sparked a revolt of the helots, the slave class of Spartan society.
Events surrounding this revolt led to an increase in tension between Sparta and their rival Athens and the cancellation of a treaty between them. After the troops of a relief expedition dispatched by conservative Athenians were sent back with cold thanks, Athenian democracy itself fell into the hands of reformers and moved toward a more populist and anti-Spartan policy.
Therefore, this earthquake is cited by historical sources as one of the key events that led up to the First Peloponnesian War. Beginning of animosity with Athens[ edit ] Sparta's attention was at this time, fully occupied by troubles nearer home; such as the revolt of Tegea in about BCrendered all the more formidable by the participation of Argos.
In the immediate aftermath, the helots saw an opportunity to rebel. This was followed by the siege of Ithome which the rebel helots had fortified. Sparta began to fear that the Athenian troops might make common cause with the rebels. Providing the official justification that since the initial assault on Ithome had failed, what was now required was a blockade, a task the Spartans did not need Athenian help with.
In Athens, this snub resulted in Athens breaking off its alliance with Sparta and allying with its enemy, Argos. Certainly a system where citizens and non citizens fought together in the same regiments was unusual for Greece. He agrees that the integration of perioeci and citizens occurred sometime between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars but doesn't regard that as a significant stage.
The Spartans had been using non-citizens as hoplites well before that and the proportion did not change. He doubts that the Spartans ever subscribed to the citizen only hoplite force ideal, so beloved by writers such as Aristotle.
The strategies described prevailed at the beginning of the war. Toward the end Persian intervention made possible a strong Spartan fleet that ultimately destroyed Athenian sea power. The Peloponnesian Wars were the protracted armed conflicts, waged on sea and land, of the last half of the 5th century BC between the Delian League controlled by Athens and the Peloponnesian League dominated by Sparta over control of the other Greek city-states.Still, the Spartan empire fell, and today we’ll take a look at how and why that happened.
It is easiest to point to specific events which built upon each other and culminated in Sparta’s defeat. The first was the battle of Cunaxa and the death of Prince Cyrus in B.C. THE RISE AND FALL OF THE SPARTAN EMPIRE Limited Time Discount!
This book contains the daily life, culture, training, battles, history, and kings of the Spartan Empire/5(21). The huge Persian Empire under Darius I sent envoys to Sparta and Athens (Now being the two major city states of Greece) demanding that they give the Persian Empire "earth and water".
The Spartans threw the envoy down a well, telling him he would find much earth and water down there. The Fall of the Spartan Empire. The decisive defeat of the Spartan hoplite army by the armed forces of Thebes at the battle of Leuctra in B.C. ended an epoch in Greek military history and permanently altered the Greek balance of power.
The History of Sparta describes the destiny of the ancient Dorian Greek state known as Sparta from its beginning in the legendary period to its incorporation into the Achaean League under the late Roman Republic, as Allied State, in BC, a period of roughly years.
Spartan women acquired so much wealth that in Aristotle’s analysis of the laws and history of Sparta he attributed its precipitous fall (which happened during his lifetime) from being the master of Greece to a second rate power in less than 50 years to the fact that Sparta had become a gynecocracy whose intemperate women loved luxury.
These tendencies became worse after the huge influx of wealth .