Anabaptism The Anabaptist movement, from which the Amish later emerged, started in circles around Huldrych Zwingli — who led the early Reformation in Switzerland. In Zurich on 21 JanuaryConrad Grebel and George Blaurock practiced adult baptism to each other and then to others. The Emmentalers sometimes referred to as Reistians, after bishop Hans Reista leader among the Emmentalers argued that fallen believers should only be withheld from communionand not regular meals. The Amish argued that those who had been banned should be avoided even in common meals.
Population and distribution Amish family at Niagara Falls in traditional dress The geographic and social isolation of Amish communities makes it difficult to determine their exact total population. Inthere were approximatelyOld Order Amish in the United States, according to calculations based on the number of church districts and average district size.
There are Old Order communities in 21 states; Ohio has the largest population 55,followed by Pennsylvania 39, and Indiana 37, With an average of seven children per family, the Amish population is growing rapidly, and new settlements are constantly being formed to obtain sufficient farmland.
Most Old Order and conservative Amish groups do not proselytize, and conversion to the Amish faith is rare. The Beachy Amish, on the other hand, do pursue missionary work.
Amish as an ethnic group The large majority of Amish are united by a common Swiss - German ancestry, language, and culture, and they marry within the Amish community.
They therefore meet the sociological criteria of an ethnic group.
However, the Amish themselves generally use the term "Amish" only to refer to accepted members of their church community, and not as an ethnic designation. Those born into the group who do not choose to join the church and live an Amish lifestyle are no longer considered Amish, just as those who live the plain lifestyle but are not baptized into the Amish Church are not Amish.
Certain Mennonite churches were formerly Amish congregations. Although more Amish immigrated to America in the nineteenth century than during the eighteenth century, most Amish today descend from eighteenth century immigrants, as the Amish immigrants of the nineteenth century were more liberal and most of their communities eventually lost their Amish identity.
Amman believed the Mennonites were drifting away from the teachings of Menno Simons and the Mennonite Dordrecht Confession of Faith, particularly the practice of shunning known as "the ban" or Meidung. This strict attitude brought about a division in the Swiss Mennonite movement in and led to the establishment of the Amish.
The Amish first began migrating to the colony of Pennsylvania in the eighteenth century, where William Penn had declared freedom of religion, and welcomed immigrants from Europe to settle.
They were part of a larger migration from the Rhineland-Palatinate and neighboring areas in Germany. They came, along with their non-Anabaptist neighbors, largely to avoid religious wars and poverty, but also to escape religious persecution.
The first immigrants went to Berks County, Pennsylvania, but later moved, motivated both by land issues and by security concerns tied to the French and Indian War. Many eventually settled in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.
Amish congregations that remained in Europe slowly merged with the Mennonites. In fact, most Amish communities that were established in North America did not ultimately retain their Amish identity.
In the s ministerial conferences were held in Wayne County, Ohio, concerning how the Amish should deal with the pressures of modern society. The meetings themselves were an innovation, for the notion that bishops should get together to work for uniformity was unprecedented in the Amish tradition.
However, after several meetings, the conservative bishops decided to boycott the conferences. Within a few decades, the more progressive Amish became Amish Mennonites, and were later absorbed into the Old Mennonites not to be confused with Old Order Mennonites.
The remaining smaller faction became the Old Order Amish of today. Religious Practices and Lifestyle The Old Order Amish do not have churches, but hold their prayer services in private homes. Thus they are sometimes called "House Amish. Groups may disagree and even separate over minor matters such as the width of a hat-brim, the color of buggies, as well as larger issues such as the use of automobiles, electricity, or telephones.
The use of tobacco excluding cigarettes, which are "worldly"  and moderate use of alcohol  are generally permitted, particularly among older and more conservative groups. Hochmut and Demut Two key concepts for understanding Amish practices are their rejection of Hochmut pride, arrogance, haughtiness and the high value placed on Demut or "humility" and Gelassenheit calmness, composure, placidity — often translated as "submission" or "letting-be.
The Amish people in Crittenden County have four local church districts. A church district is a group of about 30 families usually living close together. The Pennsylvania German Society helps to preserve, advance, and disseminate the Pennsylvania Dutch culture. Learn about Pennsylvania Amish history & traditional beliefs. The community of Plain Amish in Pennsylvania is the oldest & largest Amish community in the United States.
The Amish anti-individualist orientation is the motive for its rejecting labor-saving technologies that might make one less dependent on community or which might start a competition for status-goods or cultivate individual or family vanity.
It is also related to the Amish tradition of rejecting education beyond the eighth grade, especially speculative study that has little practical use for farm life but may awaken personal and materialistic ambitions.
Separation from the outside world The Amish often cite three Bible verses that encapsulate their cultural attitudes: For what do righteousness and wickedness have in common?The Pennsylvania German Society helps to preserve, advance, and disseminate the Pennsylvania Dutch culture. Jun 23, · The first Amish arrived in Pennsylvania in the s to escape persecution in Europe.
Amish don't fear technology, The Amish society is a . The Nebraska Amish are among the most conservative in Pennsylvania and in Amish society as a whole. There are various theories as to the reason for the unusual color patterns of the carriages here.
The Amish (/ ˈ ɑː m ɪ ʃ /; Pennsylvania German: Amisch, German: Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.
They are closely related to, but distinct from, Mennonite churches. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, and reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology..
The history of the Amish . Growing up in Pennsylvania, it can sometimes be a common sight to see Amish people. The religious group is unique in that they tend to shun many modern conveniences.
As time has passed, the Amish have felt pressures from the modern world. Their traditional rural way of life is becoming more different from the modern society. Isolated groups of Amish populations may have genetic disorders or other problems of closed communities.
Amish make decisions about health, education, relationships based on their Biblical interpretation. Amish life has influenced some things in .