Impact and Future of Holocaust Revisionism By Robert Faurisson The following is the remark, not of a revisionist, but rather by an anti-revisionist: It effectively means exclusion from civilized humanity. Anyone who is suspected of this is finished.
Vichy France was established after France surrendered to Germany on June 22,and took its name from the government's administrative center in Vichy, southeast of Paris. While officially neutral in the war, Vichy actively collaborated with the Nazis, including, to some degree, with their racial policies.
In fact, the civil jurisdiction of the Vichy government extended over the whole of metropolitan France, except for Alsace-Lorraine, a disputed territory which was placed under German administration though not formally annexed.
French civil servants in Bordeaux, such as Maurice Papon, or Nantes were under the authority of French ministers in Vichy. Some historians claim that the difficulties of communication across the demarcation line between the two zones, and the tendency of the Germans to exercise arbitrary power in the occupied zone, made it difficult for Vichy to assert its authority there.
Vichy continued to exercise jurisdiction over most of France until the collapse of the regime following the Allied invasion in June Until Augustthe Vichy regime was acknowledged as the official government of France by the United States and other countries, including Canada, which was at the same time at war with Germany.
Even the United Kingdom maintained unofficial contacts with Vichy for some time, until it became apparent that the Vichy Prime Minister Pierre Laval intended full collaboration with the Germans.
The Vichy government's claim to be the de jure French government was challenged by the Free French Forces of Charles de Gaulle, based first in London and later in Algiers, and French governments ever since have held that the Vichy regime was an illegal government run by traitors.
The main arguments advanced against Vichy's right to incarnate the continuity of the French state were based on the pressure exerted by Laval on deputies in Vichy, and on the absence of 27 deputies and senators who had fled on the Massilia ship and could thus not take part in the vote.
Within Vichy France, there was a low-intensity civil war between the French Resistance—drawn from the Communist and Republican elements of society—against the reactionary elements who desired a fascist or similar regime as in Francisco Franco 's Spain. After the eight-month Phony War, the Germans launched their offensive in the west on 10 May Within days, it became clear that French forces were overwhelmed and that military collapse was imminent.
Government and military leaders, deeply shocked by the debacle, debated how to proceed. Many officials, including the Prime Minister, Paul Reynaud, wanted to move the government to French territories in North Africa, and continue the war with the French naval fleet and the resources of the French empire.
The latter view called for an immediate cessation of hostilities. While this debate continued, the government was forced to relocate several times, finally reaching Bordeaux, in order to avoid capture by advancing German forces.
Communications were poor and thousands of civilian refugees clogged the roads. In these chaotic conditions, advocates of an armistice gained the upper hand and overwhelmed the resistance of those who wished to continue the war.
The Cabinet agreed on a proposal to seek armistice terms from Germany, with the understanding that, should Germany set forth dishonorable or excessively harsh terms, France would retain the option to continue to fight.
In reality, this was probably a pretextual understanding. Once the government breached the psychological barrier of seeking terms from Germany, the armistice was virtually inevitable. France's Armistice with Hitler France capitulated on 22 June The United States and the Soviet Union would not enter the war until Thus, the United Kingdom was left as the only world power at war with the Axis.
A separate agreement was reached with Italy, which had entered the war against France on 10 June, well after the outcome of the battle was beyond doubt. Hitler was motivated by a number of reasons to agree to the armistice.
He feared that France would continue to fight from North Africa, and he wanted to ensure that the French navy was taken out of the war. He could not know, of course, that the tide of opinion within the French government had turned decisively against this course of action.
In addition, leaving a French government in place would relieve Germany of the considerable burden of administering French territory. Finally, he hoped to direct his attentions toward Britain, where he anticipated another quick victory. Germany would occupy northern and western France including the entire Atlantic coast.
Ostensibly, the French government would administer the entire territory. The French had to pay the occupation costs of 20 million Reichmarks per day, at the artificial rate of 20 francs to the Mark - fifty times the actual costs of the ,strong occupation garrison.
The government had also to prevent any French people from going into exile. France was also required to turn over to German custody anyone within the country whom the Germans demanded. Attempts to negotiate the point with Germany were unsuccessful, and the French decided not to press the issue to the point of refusing the Armistice, though they hoped to ameliorate the requirement in future negotiations with Germany after the signing.
The French government broke off diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom on 5 July after the destruction of the French Fleet at Mers-el-Kebir by British naval forces following an ultimatum that gave the French Fleet many options to remove themselves from the theatre of war and prevent the boats being used by the Germans.
This move by Britain hardened relations between the two countries and led to more conflict between the former allies before U. On July 1,the Parliament and the government gathered themselves in Vichy, a city in the center of France, which was used as a provisional capital.
They used every means available: The charismatic figures who could have opposed themselves to Laval, Georges Mandel, Edouard Daladier, etc. By the same vote, they also granted him the power to write a new Constitution.Male and Female Stereotyping - GENDER STEROTYPING Gender stereotyping is an act of generalizing males and females.
- Japanese American Internment Camps Like all issues involving race or war, the question of whether or not it was legal and ethical to make Japanese Americans move to relocation camps in early WWII is a difficult and controversial problem. Use this guide to locate resources for the study of special topics related to World War II, including the Holocaust, the Atomic Bomb/Manhattan Project, the Nuremberg/Pacific War Trials, and Japanese/American Internment Camps. Male and Female Stereotyping - GENDER STEROTYPING Gender stereotyping is an act of generalizing males and females. Gender stereotypes are based on a “complex mix of beliefs, behaviors, and characteristics”, (plannedparenthood, 1).
Gender stereotypes are based on a “complex mix of beliefs, behaviors, and characteristics”, (plannedparenthood, 1). [Jewish and] “American Atrocities in Germany” by Judge Edward L. Van Roden This damning expose of the sadistic torture of German POW's by mostly Jewish prosecutors and captors in Dachau at the end of WW2 had some postive consequences.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. subsequent to their early American education come back with added loyalty to the United States. In fact it is a saying that all a Nisei needs is a trip to Japan to make a loyal American out of him.
The American educated Japanese is a boor in Japan and treated as a foreigner " "4. The Holocaust and the Japanese internment are very different from one another yet they are both very similar to each other.
The Holocaust was the systematic mass slaughter of Jews and other groups deemed inferior by the Nazis. Japanese Americans were sent to internment camps after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, that is when Americans focused their fears of a Japanese attack on the American west coast upon those Nisei residing in the US; as a result, they were sent to internment camps for the duration of the Pacific War.