This is curious, not only because tea is one of the main stays ofcivilization in this country, as well as in Eire, Australia and New Zealand, but because the best manner of making it is the subject ofviolent disputes. When I look through my own recipe for the perfect cup of tea, I findno fewer than eleven outstanding points. On perhaps two of them there would be pretty general agreement, but at least four others areacutely controversial.
It contends that the importance of tea as a healthful, particularly British drink made the adulteration of the beverage a significant matter for social and moral concern. Food Adulteration in the United Kingdom Figure 1: Historians of food adulteration such as Frederick Filby trace additions and modifications to food back to the Middle Ages and before Filby, ch.
As well, food adulteration and the public awareness of such adulteration were spurred by the rise of modern chemistry.
InJames F. Johnston published The Chemistry of Common Life that encouraged readers to understand the chemical content and processes of their daily diet. Analytic chemistry became a heroic tool for exposing food adulteration in the laboratory of Dr. Hassall, to investigate all varieties of food adulteration.
Suddenly, Britons found themselves in fear for their lives because of their everyday diet of bread, milk, butter, cheese—and tea. The Lancet articles and the following furor sparked a Parliamentary investigation in that concluded that some form of regulation was required—but what kind?
On the one hand, the articles and investigation had determined that, while adulteration was rampant, a distinction should be could be? At the heart of this issue was moral as well as economic concern. As Burnett and Ingeborg Paulus emphasize, domestic food adulteration that is, British manufacturers making and British merchants selling fraudulent products not only threatened public health, but also betrayed the basic moral position of the British merchant Burnett, Plenty ; Paulus Self regulation might be a way to restore public confidence but the government also felt it had to actually do something—and thus the government was faced with assaulting the sacred cow of Free Trade.
In the following years, Parliament passed three anti-adulteration acts: Neither of the two early acts were at all effective because they did not demand analyses of food nor were the penalties very stringent Filby ; Burnett, Plenty Such assertions were crucial for the debates about the adulteration of tea, as will be shown below.
Thus the domestic food industry reclaimed its moral status as purveyors of healthy and pure food while consumers could feel that both government and industry had their best interests at heart.
And by the s, such consumer trust was necessary because so much manufactured food crowded the shelves of the grocers that consumers simply could not determine what ingredients their food contained.
The Act of 4 Geo. The advent of analytic chemistry, however, allowed analysts to pinpoint specific varieties of adulteration, any of which could be perpetrated by either the Chinese manufacturer or the British wholesaler or retailer. Four specific varieties of tea adulteration predominated: Tea could be reused with mixtures: Tea, especially green tea, was often chemically enhanced.
Tea-leaves were often simply redried and resold Mitchell The debates over the adulteration of tea from The Lancet articles of until the end of the century are a case study of the intertwining of moral, social, and economic interests in the context of British imperial trade and national identity.
Tea adulteration was a particularly massive problem because of the universality of its consumption and the impossibility of growing tea domestically; that is, unlike bread or milk, tea had to be purchased from the international market; Britain did not and does not have the climate or soil which would allow domestic cultivation of the tea plant.
And it was often the laboring classes who were subjected to the most adulterated teas. Significantly, the adulteration of tea was not just the chemical poisoning of a ubiquitous beverage but a moral outrage, in large part because the beverage and its rituals were extolled as physical and social benefits.
Were tea deleterious, it is hardly conceivable that it should have been a principle article of diet, from time immemorial, in countries in which the plant is indigenous; and unless it had been found, at least innocent, the use of it would scarcely have extended, as it has done, over the more civilized part of the world, notwithstanding the most violent attacks upon it, by many respectable modern authorities in medicine.
He concluded with a celebration of the civilizing effects of the entire tea ceremony:Jan 03, · Outline Process of an Essay. Title: How To Make a Cup of Tea ; Introduction: Currently, drinking a tea is a ashio-midori.com can find everyone drinking a tea in their daily activities.
The reason why everyone like drinking a tea is because tea can makes us relax and also the taste is good. July (This essay is derived from a talk at Oscon ) A few months ago I finished a new book, and in reviews I keep noticing words like "provocative'' and "controversial.''To say nothing of "idiotic.'' I didn't mean to make the book controversial.
A cup of tea is a vital part of everyday life for the majority of people in modern Britain and is integral to our routine. Fifty Orwell Essays, by George Orwell, free ebook. His essay contained very important rules about making tea, such as "One should drink out of a good breakfast cup — that is, the cylindrical type of cup, not the flat, shallow type.
Sacred-Texts Buddhism Taoism Shinto The Book of Tea by Kakuzo Okakura I. The Cup of Humanity. Tea began as a medicine and grew into a beverage. In China, in the eighth century, it entered the realm of poetry as one of the polite amusements.