What are the Different Types of Personality Theories? Parul Kumar The individual's common and unique experiences interact with inherited potential to shape personality. How this occurs, and how the resulting personality can best be described, has been the subject of many theories. Most personality theories can be grouped into one of four classes: They also differ in the methods they use to assess or measure personality.
Traits are dimensions or scales on the basis of which a personality is described. Psychologists working in the area of trait theory are concerned with 1 determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality and, 2 finding some way to measure them.
What are the basic traits? Thousands of words in the English language refer to characteristics of behaviour.
How do we reduce them to a small number of meaningful traits? One approach uses factor analysis. Factor analysis is a complex statistical technique to be discussed more fully in the next chapter for reducing a large number of measures or a smaller number of independent dimensions.
With this technique several hundred test responses might be reduced to a few underlying dimensions of factors that account for all of the response data. Personality traits can be assessed by two miethods: With the first method a personality inventory is most often used, whereas the second usually involves a rating scale.
Some examples of rating scales: How would you describe the individual's self- confidence? Place a check at the point that describes the individual's poise.
How would you rate the subject's emotional control? Does the individual antagonize others? How would you rate the parent's behaviour toward the child?
Considers himself incapable of much success Does the individual Needs much dual need constant prodding in doing prodding of ordinary proceed with his assignments work without being told?
Psychoanalytic theory approaches personality from a viewpoint that is very different from that of trait theory. Trait theorists try to find the stable dimensions of personality by studying groups of people, and much of their data is derived from self-reports-what the individual says about himself.
In contrast, phsychoanalytic theory is based on the in-depth study of individual personalities. And because motivation is believed to be unconscious, self-reports are, not neccessarily considered accurate.
Instead a person's verbalizations are overt behaviours are interpreted as disguised representations of underlying unconscious processes. Freud's theories, developed over a 40 year period of clinical work, fill 24 volumes-from.
The Interpretation of Dreams, published into Outline of Psychoanalysis, published posthumously ina year after his death. Freud compared the human mind to an iceberg; the small part that shows on the surface of the water represents conscious experience, while the much larger mass below water level represents the unconscious-a storehouse of impulses, passions, and primitive instincts that affect our thoughts and behaviour.
It was this unconscious portion of the mind that Freud sought to explore, and he did so by the method of free association. The method requires that the person talk about everything that comes into the conscious mind, no matter how ridiculous or trivial it might seem.
By analysing free associations, including the recall of dreams and early childhood memories, Freud sought to puzzle out the basic determinants of personality.
The social learning approach to motivation focuses on the patterns of behaviour the individual learns in coping with environment. Within this viewpoint, individual differences in behaviour result from variations in the conditions of learning that the person encounters in the course of growing up.
Some behaviour patterns are learned through direct experience; the individual behaves in a certain manner and is rewarded or punished. But responses can also be acquired without direct reinforcement.Ch 12 and 13 Psyc.
STUDY. PLAY. Phenomenological theory, personal construct theory, and social-cognitive theory share interest in. How people construct personal meaning out of the events of their lives 's Personality and Assessment challenged theoretical psychoanalysis and trait theory.
Aims and methods of Trait Theory; Aims and methods of Trait Theory Essay Sample.
|Syllabus - Personality||Rochester Institute of Technology Personality traits and scales used to measure traits are numerous and commonality amongst the traits and scales is often difficult to obtain. To curb the confusion, many personality psychologists have attempted to develop a common taxonomy.|
|Aims and methods of Trait Theory | Essay Example||Parental behavior is crucial to normal and abnormal development.|
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Pages: 7; Word count: This will be accomplished by critical evaluation. I will also be using the interrogative themes Power relations, situatedness of knowledge and individual-society dualism to strengthen my evaluation.
Personal construct theory is a form. Allport's Trait Theory. Allport's theory of personality emphasizes the uniqueness of the individual and the internal cognitive and motivational processes that influence behavior.
For example, intelligence, temperament, habits, skills, attitudes, and ashio-midori.com: Saul Mcleod.
Kelly’s (, cited in Butt, ; Stevens, ) personal construct theory and Eysenck and Rathman’s (, cited in Butt, ) trait theory of personality will be outlined and then trait theory will be used to critique, and find the strengths and weaknesses of, personal construct theory to see how it contributes to our understanding of individual differences in personality.
Like Kelly's personal construct theory, social cognitive theorists believe that much human thought and action is a) future-oriented. b) influenced by submerged constructs.
Traits Theory and Expertise Since the construct of expertise may include personality traits (Germain, ), it is appropriate to question whether experts could, like leaders, be born.