Should Canada keep multiculturalism despite problems elsewhere? Or should our multiculturalism policies be changed, or perhaps even abandoned? Debate over multiculturalism is partly a question of political principle, as discussed by, for example, Canadian philosophers Will Kymlicka and Charles Taylor. But today, the debate is mostly about the social impact of diversity.
Multiculturalism, as a term, first came into vogue in Canada in the s to counter "biculturalism," popularized by the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. Its use has now spread from Canada to many countries, notably Australia.
In many ways a contested concept, multiculturalism is used in at least three senses: The idea is seen as constitutive of Canadian identity at many levels. The Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples, edited by Paul Robert Magocsi and released inasserts that individual ethnicity does not replace Canadian identity, rather it defines Canadians and their position in the world.
See also Canadian Identity and Language. Immigration and Multiculturalism With the arrival of British explorers in the 18th century, the gold rushes of the 19th century, and the settlement of the West in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Canada became one of the world's main immigrant-receiving societies, a position it retained through the s and after the Second World War see Immigration ; Immigration Policy.
In anglophone regions of the country, immigrants were overwhelmingly expected to assimilate into the English majority.
In Canada, the first major challenge to the melting pot framework came inwith the publication of Canadian Mosaic: The Making of a Northern Nation by John Murray Gibbonwhich argued that Canada stood to benefit from the cultural diversity of its various ethnic groups.
An Analysis of Social Class and Power in Canada, which criticized the class privilege enjoyed by people of British descent and the marginalization of other ethnic groups.
See also Vertical Mosaic. It was around this time that Canada began to accept increasing numbers of non-white immigrants. By the late s, previous policies of racial discrimination in the immigration system had been rescinded, and infor the first time, the majority of new immigrants were of non-European ancestry — a precedent that has persisted ever since.
This led to the establishment in of the Ministry of Multiculturalism as well as the Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism. Trudeau's declaration of Canada as a bilingual and multicultural nation resulted in an explosion of multicultural research.
Publications and literature were developed, many national research surveys were launched, ethnic identity research escalated, and organizations were established to support diversity. Multiculturalism was celebrated as a new vision of Canadian identity, which would foster a global understanding of all ethnic communities.
Many programs, such as the Stop Racism campaign, were developed to address hate and bias in Canada, but more recent programs have shifted their focus to immigration issues and to the support of new arrivals, including assistance with professional accreditation and access to employment.
Multiculturalism programs have also recognized the historic significance of certain ethnic groups by developing educational initiatives, such as school programs promoting Black History Month, which aims to educate young Canadians about the Black community and its history in Canada.
|National Identity, Canadian Cinema, and Multiculturalism||Indigenous Peoples[ edit ] Young girl from Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations in traditional tree fibre clothing - ca.|
|Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures||There are over one-hundred and twenty organizations and groups involved in the C.|
|Multiculturalism in Canada - Wikipedia||Advanced Search Abstract Prior consumer research has investigated the consumer behavior, identity work, and sources of ethnic group conflict among various immigrants and indigenes. We bring sociological theories of neoliberal governmentality and multiculturalism to bear on an in-depth analysis of the contemporary Canadian marketplace to reveal our concept of market-mediated multiculturation, which we define as an institutional mechanism for attenuating ethnic group conflicts through which immigrant-receiving cultures fetishize strangers and their strangeness in their commodification of differences, and the existence of inequalities between ethnicities is occluded.|
|Language selection||Introduction[ edit ] Canada's large geographic size, the presence and survival of a significant number of indigenous peoples, the conquest of one European linguistic population by another and relatively open immigration policy have led to an extremely diverse society.|
Multicultural policies in the s did not meet the needs of all immigrants — especially with the increase of "visible minorities" — and were more closely aligned with long-established ethnic groups of European background.
Nonetheless, the introduction of the term, and what has been called the multicultural movement, brought attention to the need for government policies to reflect the diversity of Canadian society. The Public Response to Multiculturalism Policy Government policies of multiculturalism have been viewed with hostility and suspicion by many.
They have been viewed by some French Canadians as injurious to the French Canadian position as one of the two linguistic communities of which Canada is composed; some scholars decried them as a means of buttressing Anglo-Saxon dominance by diverting the efforts of the non-French and the non-English from political and economic affairs into cultural activities and excluding other ethnic groups from power and influence.
Advocates from ethnic groups viewed multiculturalism policies as unacceptable substitutes for aid and many considered the policies and programs to be bribes for "the ethnic vote.
Public Discourse on Multiculturalism Will Kymlicka and Charles Taylor have been among the most influential Canadian thinkers on the subject of multiculturalism. In his book Multicultural Citizenship, Kymlicka develops a typology of minority rights, which includes self-government rights, special representation rights, and polyethnic rights which he defines as legal and financial support for the protection of specific cultural practices.
To that effect, he argues that it is important for policymakers to draw clear distinctions between national minorities and immigrant groups: Laferriere, Multiculturalism in Canada L. Driedger, Multi-Ethnic Canada W.Furthermore, researchers contend that the presence of multicultural laws, values, and norms has played an important role in helping to normalize ethnic diversity and make it part of the Canadian national identity (Kazemipur ; Kymlicka , ).
Among the most popular issues connected to the multiculturalism, one can find multiculturalism in America essay, its role in education, multicultural society, culture and politics, the advantages of multicultural society, etc.
Multiculturalism and Religious Identity addresses this question by examining the political recognition and management of religious identity in Canada and India. In multicultural policy, practice, and literature, religion has until recently not been included within broader discussions of multiculturalism, perhaps due to worries of potential for conflict with secularism.
Get a better understanding and appreciation of Indigenous peoples, the role of the monarchy, as well as the languages, anthems and symbols that define Canada’s identity.
Recognize the impact of the promotion of gender equality and the protection of human rights and cultural diversity in .
Reflections on Multiculturalism in Canadian Fiction for Young People since A Contribution to National Identity Formation Grit Alter Jeunesse: Young People, Texts, Cultures, Volume 4, .
- Identity Crisis in Canadian Film Much has been written about the ways in which Canada's state as a nation is, as Peter Harcourt writes, "described" and hence, "imagined" (Harcourt, "The Canadian Nation -- An Unfinished Text", 6) through the cultural products that it produces.